This thesis describes some aspects of the symbiosis between imaging and robotics in magnetic resonance (MR)-guided prostate biopsy. The need for MRI targeted biopsy in the detection of prostate cancer was demonstrated in chapter 2. We identified differences between MR image-guided and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy regarding cancer locations and aggressiveness in order to get insight in the diagnostic limitations of both techniques (chapters 3 and 4). In chapter 5 we investigated the differences in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-values derived from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with either prostatitis and prostate cancer. We investigated the feasibility of an MRcompatible robotic manipulator in a phantom and patients (chapter 6 and 7). In addition we addressed the feasibility of an automatic tracking sequence, which has the potential to improve the MR-guided biopsy procedure (chapter 8).