PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 3 Tesla, 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in the localization of prostate cancer (PCa) with and without the use of an endorectal coil (ERC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between October 2004 and January 2006, 18 patients with histologically proven PCa on biopsy and scheduled for radical prostatectomy were included and underwent 3D-MRSI with and without an ERC. The prostate was divided into 14 regions of interest (ROIs). Four readers independently rated (on a 5-point scale) their confidence that cancer was present in each of these ROIs. These findings were correlated with whole-mount prostatectomy specimens. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were determined. A difference with a P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 504 ROIs were rated for the presence and absence of PCa. Localization of PCa with MRSI with the use of an ERC had a significantly higher areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.68) than MRSI without the use of an ERC (0.63) (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: The use of an ERC in 3D MRSI in localizing PCa at 3 Tesla slightly but significantly increased the localization performance compared with not using an ERC.
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