PURPOSE: To demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of integrating two functional prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI [DCE-MRI] and 1H-spectroscopic MRI [MRSI]) into inverse treatment planning for definition and potential irradiation of a dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) as a biologic target volume for high-dose intraprostatic boosting with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In 5 patients, four gold markers were implanted. An endorectal balloon was inserted for both CT and MRI. A DIL volume was defined by DCE-MRI and MRSI using different prostate cancer-specific physiologic (DCE-MRI) and metabolic (MRSI) parameters. CT-MRI registration was performed automatically by matching three-dimensional gold marker surface models with the iterative closest point method. DIL-IMRT plans, consisting of whole prostate irradiation to 70 Gy and a DIL boost to 90 Gy, and standard IMRT plans, in which the whole prostate was irradiated to 78 Gy were generated. The tumor control probability and rectal wall normal tissue complication probability were calculated and compared between the two IMRT approaches. RESULTS: Combined DCE-MRI and MRSI yielded a clearly defined single DIL volume (range, 1.1-6.5 cm3) in all patients. In this small, selected patient population, no differences in tumor control probability were found. A decrease in the rectal wall normal tissue complication probability was observed in favor of the DIL-IMRT plan versus the plan with IMRT to 78 Gy. CONCLUSION: Combined DCE-MRI and MRSI functional image-guided high-dose intraprostatic DIL-IMRT planned as a boost to 90 Gy is theoretically feasible. The preliminary results have indicated that DIL-IMRT may improve the therapeutic ratio by decreasing the normal tissue complication probability with an unchanged tumor control probability. A larger patient population, with more variations in the number, size, and localization of the DIL, and a feasible mechanism for treatment implementation has to be studied to extend these preliminary tumor control and toxicity estimates.
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