Three-Tesla Magnetic Resonance-Guided Prostate Biopsy in Men With Increased Prostate-Specific Antigen and Repeated, Negative, Random, Systematic, Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsies: Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancers

C.M.A. Hoeks, M.G. Schouten, J.G.R. Bomers, S.P. Hoogendoorn, C.A. Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, T. Hambrock, H. Vergunst, J.P.M. Sedelaar, J.J. Fütterer and J.O. Barentsz

European Urology 2012;62:902-909



BACKGROUND: Patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and one or more previous negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy sessions are subject to diagnostic uncertainty due to TRUS-biopsy undersampling. Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy (MRGB) has shown high prostate cancer (PCa)-detection rates in studies with limited patient numbers. OBJECTIVE: Determine the detection rate of (clinically significant) PCa for MRGB of cancer-suspicious regions (CSRs) on 3-T multiparametric MR imaging (MP-MRI) in patients with elevated PSA and one or more negative TRUS-biopsy sessions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Of 844 patients who underwent 3-T MP-MRI in our referral centre between March 2008 and February 2011, 438 consecutive patients with a PSA >4.0 ng/ml and one negative TRUS-biopsy session or more were included. MRGB was performed in 265 patients. Exclusion criteria were existent PCa, endorectal coil use, and MP-MRI for indications other than cancer detection. INTERVENTION: Patients underwent MRGB of MP-MRI CSRs. MEASUREMENTS: (Clinically significant) MRGB cancer-detection rates were determined. Clinically significant cancer was defined by accepted (i.a. Epstein and d'Amico) criteria based on PSA, Gleason score, stage, and tumour volume. Follow-up PSA and histopathology were collected. Sensitivity analysis was performed for patients with MP-MRI CSRs without MRGB. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In a total of 117 patients, cancer was detected with MRGB (n=108) or after negative MRGB (n=9). PCa was detected in 108 of 438 patients (25 and in 41% (108 of 265) of MRGB patients. The majority of detected cancers (87 were clinically significant. Clinically significant cancers were detected in seven of nine (78 negative MRGB patients in whom PCa was detected during follow-up. Sensitivity analysis resulted in increased cancer detection (47-56. Complications occurred in 0.2% of patients (5 of 265). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with elevated PSA and one or more negative TRUS-biopsy sessions, MRGB of MP-MRI CSRs had a PCa-detection rate of 41 The majority of detected cancers were clinically significant (87.

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